ATTITUDE OF RURAL ADULTS TOWARDS TOBACCO CHEWING

kurusar, kalaiselvi and K jose, Jaijo and Paulose, Cyril (2017) ATTITUDE OF RURAL ADULTS TOWARDS TOBACCO CHEWING. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CURRENT RESEARCH. ISSN ISSN- 0975-833X (In Press)

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Abstract

ATTITUDE OF RURAL ADULTS TOWARDS TOBACCO CHEWING : BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY: Tobacco is an addictive substance because it contains the chemical nicotine. Like heroin or cocaine, nicotine changes the way your brain works and causes you to crave more and more nicotine. This addiction to nicotine is what makes it so difficult to quit smoking and other tobacco1. Addiction is a disease that affects both brain and behavior. Immediately after exposure to nicotine, there is a "kick" caused in part by the drug’s stimulation of the adrenal glands and resulting discharge of epinephrine (adrenaline). The rush of adrenaline stimulates the body and causes an increase in blood pressure, respiration, and heart rate2. Oral and spit tobacco increases the risk for leukoplakia, a precursor to oral cancer. Chewing tobacco has been known to cause cancer, particularly of the mouth and throat. Chewing is one of the oldest methods of consuming tobacco3. Chewing tobacco is known to be strongly associated with a number of major health problems, including oral cancer, high blood pressure, gum disease, reduced sperm count, and erectile dysfunction. Smokeless tobacco is associated with recession of the gums, gum disease, and tooth decay. Smokeless tobacco use during pregnancy increases the risks for preeclampsia (i.e., a condition that may include high blood pressure, fluid retention, and swelling), premature birth, and low birth weight. Smokeless tobacco use by men causes reduced sperm count and abnormal sperm cells. Smokeless tobacco use can lead to nicotine addiction and dependence. Adolescents who use smokeless tobacco are more likely to become cigarette smokers4. Cigarettes are smoked by over 1.1 billion people. While smoking rates have leveled off or declined in developed nations, in developing nations tobacco consumption continues to rise at a rate of around 3.4% per annum. Chewing tobacco poses a bigger threat than smoking5. Easy availability, coupled with a complete lack of restriction on use, has drawn thousands of youngsters to gutkha, pointed out experts. "You can use it while travelling, in an auditorium or even at work. While we have restrictions on smoking, chewing remains easy6. The WHO in 2004 projected 58.8 million deaths to occur globally, from which 5.4 million are tobacco-attributed, and 4.9 million as of 2007. It is predicted that 1.5 to 1.9 billion people will be smokers in 20257. Almost 6million people died in 2011 due to tobacco use, with around 80% of the deaths occur in low and middle-income countries according to the tobacco atlas published by the American Cancer Society and World Lung Foundation8. The AHA estimates about 7 percent of U.S. adults use these products, 8 percent of high school students and nearly 3 percent of middle schoolers currently use smokeless tobacco8 In India, tobacco consumption is responsible for half of all the cancers in men and a quarter of all cancers in women, in addition to being a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. India also has one of the highest rates of oral cancer in the world, partly attributed to high prevalence of tobacco chewing. Forms of tobacco chewing include pan (piper betel leaf filled with sliced areca nut, lime, catechu, and other spices chewed with or without tobacco), pan-masala or gutkha (a chewable tobacco containing areca nut), and mishri (a powdered tobacco rubbed on the gums as toothpaste)9. The total number of tobacco users in the World has been estimated as 1.2 billion, which is expected to rise to 1.6 billion during 2020s. At present, tobacco use causes death of 3.5 to 4 million people globally, which is expected to increase to about 10 million during 2020s. Developing countries need to be concerned because 7 million of these deaths would be occurring in these areas, mainly due to increasing trends of tobacco use.10 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Attitude on tobacco chewing among rural adults, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh. Northern India. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: To assess the socio demographic variables of the subjects To assess the attitude of rural adults towards tobacco chewing. RESULTS OF THE STUDY: SOCIO DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES: Descriptive analysis of the data revealed that More than a third of subjects 199 (39.8%) were in the age group of 20-30 years and the least number 49 (9.8%) of them belonged to above 50 years of age. More than two fifth of the subjects i.e. 208 (41.6%) were having school education whereas 195 (39%) subjects had no formal education. More than a third of subjects, 186 (37.2 %) were laborers whereas about 111 subjects (22.2%) were farmers. More than a tenth of subjects were unemployed. Only 5.4 % of subjects were students. Majority of the subjects (67.8%) were non-vegetarians. 40.6% of subjects were Muslims. Majority of the subjects (66.8%) were married. Nearly a third of subjects (29%) were having the habit of tobacco chewing followed by smoking (15.2%), chewing betel leaves(6.2%), alcohol (4.8%), drugs (4.6%) and chewing nuts(3%). More than a third of subjects 186 (37.2%) got health related information from family members. Nearly half of subjects 233 (46.6%) had the income of less than Rs 3000. More than half of the subjects (52.6%) belonged to the SC/ST category. ATTITUDE The attitude of the subjects towards tobacco chewing was classified in to three types they are favorable, moderately favorable and unfavorable according to the level of score. The favorable responses were given score one whereas unfavorable responses were given score zero. The subjects whose total score was 0 to 6 was considered under unfavorable attitude and the subjects whose total attitude score is between 7 to 12 was considered under moderately favorable attitude and whose score was 13 -17 considered under highly favorable attitude. Table 1: Frequency and percentage distribution of adults based on their attitude towards tobacco chewing: N=500 Sl. No Attitude Frequency Percentage 1 Highly Favourable attitude 25 5 2 Moderately favourable attitude 163 32.6 3 Unfavourable attitude 312 62.4 Total 500 100 Fig 1: Pie chart showing the frequency and percentage distribution of the adults based on their attitude towards tobacco chewing Table 1 and fig 1 show the attitude of the adults towards tobacco chewing. Only about 5% of subjects were having highly favorable attitude whereas nearly a third of adults had moderately favorable attitude and approximately two third of adults had unfavorable attitude towards tobacco chewing. Table 2: Frequency percentage distribution of the adults based on their attitude towards tobacco chewing: N=500 Sl. No Attitude Yes No F % F % 1. Chewing tobacco is a bad habit 468 93.6 32 6.4 2. Tobacco chewing is injurious to health 461 92.2 39 7.8 3. Tobacco chewing affects my image in society 399 79.8 101 20.2 4. Tobacco chewing causes financial loss 430 86 70 14 5. Chewing tobacco will cause adverse consequences 417 83.4 83 16.6 6. Tobacco chewing can be stopped 392 78.4 108 21.6 7. Chewing tobacco will make environment dirty 426 85.2 74 14.8 8. Quitting the habit of tobacco chewing is difficult 178 35.6 322 64.4 9. Tobacco chewing can affect the relationship between husband and wife 289 57.8 211 42.2 10. Chewing tobacco will make me dependant on it 372 74.4 128 25.6 11. Chewing tobacco will affect the respect from society 374 74.8 128 25.6 12. Tobacco chewing will affect the friendship or any relationship 364 72.8 136 27.2 13. Children may acquire the same habit from the parents 376 75.2 124 24.8 14. Chewing tobacco will cause the discoloration of the teeth 402 80.4 98 19.6 15. I would like to start or continue the habit 293 58.6 207 41.4 16. I can quit the habit if I am a chewer 375 75 125 25 17. I have an idea not to go for the habit of tobacco chewing or to quit the habit if I have. 371 74.2 129 25.8 Table 2 & fig 2 explains about the frequency percentage distribution of the adults based on their attitude regarding tobacco chewing. Surprisingly just above 93.6 % of adults thought that tobacco chewing is a bad habit and injurious to health. Approximately about 80 % (399) of adults had thought that chewing tobacco will affect their image in the society. Majority of the subjects i.e. about 86 % (430) were had the attitude that it will cause financial loss. More than four fifth of the adults that is 83.4% (417) had thought that chewing tobacco will cause adverse consequences. Nearly about 80% of them (392) said that tobacco chewing can be stopped. Astonishingly 85.2% of adults had thought that chewing tobacco will make environment dirty. Just above the one third of the adult (35.6%) said that quitting the habit of tobacco chewing is difficult. More than half of the adult (57.8%) thought that chewing tobacco may affect the relationship between the husband and wife. Equally around three fourth of the adults said that chewing tobacco will make me dependant on it (74.4%), it will affect the respect from the society (74.8), can affect friendship or any other relationship (72.8%) and children may acquire the same habit from the parents (75.2). majority of the adults i.e. about 80.4% (402) of the adult had thought that chewing tobacco will cause discoloration of the teeth. More than half of the adult i.e. about 58.6% (293) said that they want to start or continue the habit of tobacco chewing. About 75% of the subjects said that if they are the tobacco chewers they can quit the habit. Almost three fourth of the adult i.e. about 74.2% (371) had mentioned that they will not choose chewing tobacco or they will quit the habit if they have. Fig 2: Percentage distribution of the adults based on their attitude towards tobacco chewing: DISCUSSION: Only about 5% of the subjects were having highly favorable attitude towards tobacco chewing whereas nearly a third of adults had moderately favorable attitude and approximately two third of adults had unfavorable attitude towards tobacco chewing. The similar result was found by the study conducted by Shabana Khatun et al, it shows that the majority of the respondents were having unfavorable attitude towards tobacco usages11. In contrast A cross-sectional study revealed that 451 (96.6%) of the subjects had a favourable attitude towards tobacco use12. Surprisingly just above 93.6 % of adults thought that tobacco chewing is a bad habit and injurious to health. Approximately about 80 % (399) of adults had thought that chewing tobacco will affect their image in the society. Majority of the subjects i.e. about 86 % (430) were had the attitude that it will cause financial loss. More than four fifth of the adults (83.4%) (417) said that chewing tobacco will cause adverse consequences. Nearly about 80% of them (392) said that tobacco chewing can be stopped. Astonishingly 85.2% of adults had thought that chewing tobacco will make environment dirty. Just above the one third of the adults (35.6%) said that quitting the habit of tobacco chewing is difficult. More than half of the adults (57.8%) thought that chewing tobacco may affect the relationship between the husband and wife. Equally around three fourth of the adults said that chewing tobacco will make me dependant on it (74.4%), it will affect the respect from the society (74.8), can affect friendship or any other relationship (72.8%) and children may acquire the same habit from the parents (75.2). Majority of the adults i.e. about 80.4% (402) had thought that chewing tobacco will cause discoloration of the teeth. More than half of the adults i.e. about 58.6% (293) said that they want to start or continue the habit of tobacco chewing. About 75% of the subjects said that if they are the tobacco chewers they can quit the habit. Almost three fourth of the adults i.e. about 74.2% (371) had mentioned that they will not choose chewing tobacco or they will quit the habit if they have. Whereas the above result about attitude regarding the ill effects of tobacco resembles the study conducted by Suraj Multani et al their study has shown that Surprisingly, the majority of tobacco users( smokers) 295 (71.7%), reported that they were aware of the harmful effects of tobacco13. CONCLUSION: Only about 5% of subjects were having highly favorable attitude whereas nearly a third of adults had moderately favorable attitude and approximately two third of adults had unfavorable attitude towards tobacco chewing. Unfavorable attitude among rural adults towards tobacco chewing may increase the prevalence among them. KEY WORDS: Tobacco chewing, Attitude, Rural adults. BIBILIOGRAPHY: 1. U.S Department of health & human service. Nicotine addiction and your health.[Internet] 2010[updated:April4,2014;cited31May2014].Available from http://betobaccofree.hhs.gov/ health-effects/nicotine-health/index.html. 2. National institute of drug abuse. Tobacco use and comorbidity.[internet] 2012. [Updated 2012 July; cited 31 July 2014]. Available from: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/tobacco-addiction/tobacco-use-comorbidity. 3. Wikimedia foundation. Chewing tobacco. [Internet] 2014. [updated 24 July 2014; cited 31 July 2014]. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chewing tobacco 4. Bacc off. Chewing tobacco effects and statistics. [Internet] [cited 31 July 2014]. Available from: http://www.dipstop.com/chewing tobacco effects.html 5. Wikimedia foundation. List of countries by cigarette consumption per capita. [internet] 2014 [Updated by29 July 2014; cited 31 July 2014]. Available from: cigawikimedhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_cigarette_consumption_per_capita 6. Prithvijit M. Chewing tobacco riskier than smoking: study. The times of India. 29 may 2013. Kolkata/39600444. Available from timesofindia.indiatimes.com › City 7. Wikimedia foundation. Prevalence of tobacco consumption. [Internet] 2014 [updated 28 July 2014; cited 31 July 2014]. Available from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Prevalence of tobacco consumption 8. World health organization. Report on the global tobacco epidemic, Implementing Smoke-Free Environments. Geneva, 2009. Available at www.who.int/tobacco/mpower/2009/en/ 9. The MPOWER package, warning about the dangers of tobacco. Geneva: WHO; 2011. WHO Report on The Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2011. Available at http://www.who.int/tobacco/global_report/2011/en/ 10. RaniM, Bonu S, Jha P,Nugyun S N , JamJoum L. Tobacco use in India. Updated on 10 September 2003 Tob Control 2003.; BMJ Open Gastroenterology;12:e4Available at http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/12/4/e4.full 11. Shabana K, DrSuraj K, DrAlok K assess the knowledge and attitude of ill effects of Tobacco usage among group D workers working in ChhatrapatiShivajiSubharti Hospital, Meerut Indian Journal of Research 2:8:Aug 2013. 12. Tiwari R, Lepcha M, Chaudhari R. Tobacco use and cardiovascular disease: A knowledge, attitude and practice study in Kerala. Indian J Med Sci 2006 Jul;60(7):271-6. 13. S UrajMultani, JadduJyothirmai, Nagesh B. Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, Behaviour and Interpersonal Factors Related to the Use of Tobacco among Youth of Udaipur City, Rajasthan, India: Addict Health 2012; 4(3-4): 142-150.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Medical-Surgery Nursing
Divisions: Nursing - Khamis Mushyait > Medical-Surgery Nursing
Depositing User: Ms Kalaiselvi kurusar
Date Deposited: 06 Feb 2017 06:10
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2017 06:10
URI: http://eprints.kku.edu.sa/id/eprint/385

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