Spatial Analysis and Geographical Distribution of Heavy Metal Contamination in Urban House Water Reservoirs at Khamis Mushait City, Assir, Saudi Arabia

Al-Otaibi, Eed Lafi Shaher and Zaki, Mahmoud Samy Ahmed and Al Faifi, Spatial Analysis and Geographical Distribution of Heavy Metal Contamination in Urban House Water Reservoirs at Khamis Mushait City, Assir, Saudi Arabia. Spatial Analysis and Geographical Distribution of Heavy Metal Contamination in Urban House Water Reservoirs at Khamis Mushait City, Assir, Saudi Arabia.

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Abstract

Water samples collected from both types of house reservoirs used in Khamis Mushait City Houses, south-western, Saudi Arabia has been studied to determine the most common heavy metals which include Zinc ( Zn), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Cobalt (Co) and Nickel (Ni) and to compare the obtained results with the drinking water standards set by Saudi and other international regulatory standards. The inter-element correlation between the results of heavy metals determined in the different drinking water reservoirs was also attempted. A total of 97 water samples collected from the house reservoirs at 4 main designed geo-localities using enhanced SPOT satellite imageries of 10m (AX1-AX4). The obtained results indicated that, water from geo-locality AX4 showed the highest mean Zn, Cu, Fe and Co, while AX1 was highly polluted with Pb. However, water from AX2 was the highest geo-locality polluted with Cd. Ni was not detected in all examined water samples. In Comparison the obtained results with guidelines for drinking water, it was revealed that Zn and Cu in all examined water were below the permissible limit set Saudi and international standards, while some water samples exceeding the permissible for Fe (9.28%), Pb (7.22) and Cd (42.27%). There were no significant variations of all examined heavy metals between fiberglass and steel reservoirs. There were positive correlations between Zn & Cu; Zn & Fe; Zn & Pb and Fe & Cu in the examined water geo-sites from fiberglass reservoirs, while from steel reservoirs, there were positive correlations between Zn & Fe; Cu & Fe and Cd & Pb. Spatial maps (interpolation maps-IDW) have confirmed negative and positive correlations distribution. It was also evident from the study area, house owners are responsible for collection and management of water, therefore, they should be educated with water knowledge needed for sustainable use and management of house water reservoirs. Periodical assessment of water quality in house reservoirs on routine basis is imperative and a sustainable management is required to reduce the contamination of drinking water quality and dismiss any suspected health concern.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Geography
Divisions: College of Humanities > Geography
Depositing User: Eprints Administrator KKU
Date Deposited: 07 Jul 2015 00:50
Last Modified: 18 Aug 2015 11:53
URI: http://eprints.kku.edu.sa/id/eprint/53

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